Showing posts from July, 2023

NR vs NMN: What's the Difference?

NR vs NMN? Nicotinamide riboside (NR) and nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN) are both precursors to nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+), a coenzyme that plays important roles in energy production, DNA repair, and other cellular processes. NR and NMN are often mixed up and confused by most consumers. We will cover the essentials and explain about each of these supplements below. NAD NAD is a type of coenzyme found in all living cells. NAD plays important roles in a variety of metabolic reactions, including energy production and DNA repair. NAD is derived from Nicotinamide Riboside (NR) and various other precursors. NR is one of the 3 main forms of Niacin (vitamin B3). NR, nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN), Niacin (NA) and Niacinamide (NAM) are all NAD precursors, meaning all these precursors will be transformed into NAD. That said, each precursor has it's own different pathway that will lead to NAD. NAD+ is a substrate for a number of important enzymes, including poly(ADP-ribose

Methylene Blue: Benefits, Dosage and Side Effects 2023

Methylene blue (MB), also known as methylthioninium chloride, is a bioactive substance and a blue dye. Methylene blue (MB), as the first fully man-made medicine, has a wide range of clinical applications. Apart from its well-known FDA approved applications in surgical staining, malaria, and methemoglobinemia, the anti-oxidative properties of MB recently brought new attention to this century-old drug. Some researchers believe that it can directly improve cellular and mitochondrial function and decrease the production of proteins linked to Alzheimer’s. It is also being studied for its potential to inhibit monoamine oxidase (MAO), nitric oxide (NO) synthase, and guanylate cyclase [ Rojas, 2013 ,  Tucker, 2017 ]. Mitochondrial Mechanisms During brain aging, mitochondrial dysfunction has been associated with neuronal loss. It has also been observed in many brain diseases, such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD), Parkinson’s disease (PD), and brain injuries [ Nitzan, 2019 ]. M